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World Health Organization : Year 1993 ; World Health Organization Fil, No. 93.187: Criteria for the Certification of Dracunculiasis Eradication

By Akoa Amanaman

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Book Id: WPLBN0000103297
Format Type: PDF eBook
File Size: 0.9 MB
Reproduction Date: 2005
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Title: World Health Organization : Year 1993 ; World Health Organization Fil, No. 93.187: Criteria for the Certification of Dracunculiasis Eradication  
Author: Akoa Amanaman
Volume:
Language: English
Subject: Health., Public health, Wellness programs
Collections: Medical Library Collection, World Health Collection
Historic
Publication Date:
Publisher: World Health Organization

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Amanaman, A. (n.d.). World Health Organization : Year 1993 ; World Health Organization Fil, No. 93.187. Retrieved from http://hawaiilibrary.net/


Description
Medical Reference Publication

Excerpt
1. INTRODUCTION Dracunculiasis (or guinea worm disease) is a disease which is endemic in certain communities without access to safe sources of drinking-water and which has serious adverse effects on health, agricultural production and school attendance. The disease occurs in India and Pakistan, and in 16 African countries, extending from West Africa across the Sahel to East Africa, excluding probably Gambia, Guinea-Bissau and Somalia where apparently the disease is no longer endemic (see Map 1). An estimated 120 million persons are at risk of the infection in Afritd (Watts, 1987). and 10 million in Asia. About 2 to 3 million persons contract the disease each year (Muller, 1992). In 1992, 15 countries reported a total of 374 202 cases of dracunculiasis to the World Health Organization. More than 99.6% of these cases were reported from Africa (WHO, 1993). Early in the twentieth century, human dracunculiasis apparently disappeared spontaneously from some countries where it had been endemic, e.g, Egvpt. In previous centuries dracunculiasis had been introduced into several countries of mainland North, Central and South America (e.g., Brazil) during the African slave trade, but the disease later died out (Hoepplie, 1969). It was eradicated from Iran towards the end of the 1970s (Sahba, 1973; Sahba et al., 1992) and from Uzbekistan in the 1920s (Litvinov & Lysenko, 1982). In India dracunculiasis was eradicated from Tamil Nadu State in 1984 (Kapali et a]., 1984) and later, in 1991, from the States of Gujarat and Maharashtra (WHO, 1992). Within the context of the United Nations International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade (1981-1990), a global campaign to eradicite dracunculiasis was started in the early 19809, and, today, the eradication programme is nearing completion.

Table of Contents
CONTENTS Page 1. INTRODUCTION .......................................................... 3 , I 2. DEFINITIONS ............................................................ 4 3. ZOONOTICASPECTS..... ................................................. 4 4. CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES 4.1 National preparations for certification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4.2 International preparations for certification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 4.3 Strategies for certification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 4.4 Operation of International Certification Teams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 5. CRITERIA FOR CERTIFICATION OF ERADICATION ............................... 6 5.1 Countries with dracunculiasis transmission during the 1980s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 5.2 Formerly endemic countries (transmission occurred before 1980) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

 

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