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The New England Journal of Medicine

By Samet, Jonathan M.

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Book Id: WPLBN0000113722
Format Type: PDF eBook
File Size: 0.2 MB
Reproduction Date: 2007

Title: The New England Journal of Medicine  
Author: Samet, Jonathan M.
Language: English
Subject: Ecology, Natural resource issues, Environemtal protection
Collections: Environmental Awareness Library Collection
Publication Date:
Publisher: United States Environmental Protection Agency


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Samet, J. M. (n.d.). The New England Journal of Medicine. Retrieved from

Excerpt: ABSTRACT Background Air pollution in cities has been linked to increased rates of mortality and morbidity in developed and developing countries. Although these findings have helped lead to a tightening of air-quality standards, their validity with respect to public health has been questioned. Methods We assessed the effects of five major outdoor- air pollutants on daily mortality rates in 20 of the largest cities and metropolitan areas in the United States from 1987 to 1994. The pollutants were particulate matter that is less than 10 ?m in aerodynamic diameter (PM 10 ), ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide. We used a two-stage analytic approach that pooled data from multiple locations. Results After taking into account potential confounding by other pollutants, we found consistent evidence that the level of PM 10 is associated with the rate of death from all causes and from cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. The estimated increase in the relative rate of death from all causes was 0.51 percent (95 percent posterior interval, 0.07 to 0.93 percent) for each increase in the PM 10 level of 10 ?g per cubic meter. The estimated increase in the relative rate of death from cardiovascular and respiratory causes was 0.68 percent (95 percent posterior interval, 0.20 to 1.16 percent) for each increase in the PM 10 level of 10 ?g per cubic meter. There was weaker evidence that increases in ozone levels increased the relative rates of death during the summer, when ozone levels are highest, but not during the winter. Levels of the other pollutants were not significantly related to the mortality rate.

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