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European Occupational Health Series : 1994-97; Prevention in Primary Care, Primary Health Care, Volume 512 (1)-In German: Expertenverbund ; Gesundheitsanliegen UND Finanzierungsstrategien Der Gesundheitsversorgung

By World Health Organization

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Book Id: WPLBN0000134236
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Reproduction Date: 2005

Title: European Occupational Health Series : 1994-97; Prevention in Primary Care, Primary Health Care, Volume 512 (1)-In German: Expertenverbund ; Gesundheitsanliegen UND Finanzierungsstrategien Der Gesundheitsversorgung  
Author: World Health Organization
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Language: English
Subject: Health., Public health, Wellness programs
Collections: Medical Library Collection, World Health Collection
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Publisher: World Health Organization

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Organization, W. H. (n.d.). European Occupational Health Series : 1994-97; Prevention in Primary Care, Primary Health Care, Volume 512 (1)-In German. Retrieved from http://hawaiilibrary.net/


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Medical Reference Publication

Excerpt
All the papers in this special issue of the Bulletin of the World Health Organization originate from a single project.' Although trypanosomiasis affects man and animals in about 10 000 000 kma of the African continent and is transmitted by a number of different species of tsetse (Glossina), the project concentrated on one very limited area of 300-350 kme-the Lambwe Valley in Kenya. This valley is infested by only one species of tsetse of any importance-namely, G. pallidipes, which itself is found only in limited parts of the total area of tsetse distribution. This limitation was, however, based on practical considerations-the amount that could be undertaken by a relatively small staff within a iixed time and the existence, at the time the project was first planned, of an acute and unusual outbreak of human trypanosomiasis in western Kenya. In the Lambwe Valley, furthermore, are to be found almost aU the factors necessary to the maintenance of trypanosomiasis-a human population (with or without domestic animals) in some parts, wild animals of a number of species, and a tsetse population and thicket vegetation that vary from very light to extremely dense. Again, though G. pallidipes usually has a limited distribution in any one locality, since its basic habitat is thicket, it is found in such vegetation in a wider range of climatic conditions than is any other species of tsetse. For this and other reasons it can be one of the more difficult species to control or eradicate. Its existence in extremely dense thicket in the Lambwe Valley, plus the fact that a game reserve of some 120 kma in the middle of the valley ensured adequate food supply for the fly, posed a specially difficult problem. Finally, the G. pallidipes belt was completely isolated from any possible source of reinfestation so that, should eradication prove possible, the result would be permanent. The main purpose of the project, which became operational on 1 March 1968, was to devise methods for the effective and economic control of trypanosomiasis in man and animals in Nyanza and Western Provinces, Kenya. There were four principal areas of research: (1) the most effective means of controlling G.pallidipes; (2) the epidemiology of the disease, with particular reference to its zoonotic aspects; (3) improved methods for the diagnosis of trypanosomiasis in man and animals; and (4) the effects of insecticides on the ecological balance in the treated areas. Work in these areas was associated with continuing programmes of tsetse control undertaken by the Tsetse Survey and Control Unit of the Government of Kenya. The project ran for three years (i.e., until 1 March 1971), except that the entomological work, particularly that relating to aerial spraying against tsetse, and the work on game ecology both continued for another four months. The project staff included an epidemiologist, a veterinarian, an entomologist, and several technical and administrative officers. A mid-term review led to a recommendation that a game ecologist be added to the project staff, and the value of this addition is clearly demonstrated in a number of the papers that foUow.

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