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Terrorism and the Law of War: Trying Terrorists as War Criminals before Military Commissions

By Elsea, Jennifer K.

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Book Id: WPLBN0000141920
Format Type: PDF eBook
File Size: 0.4 MB
Reproduction Date: 2008
Full Text

Title: Terrorism and the Law of War: Trying Terrorists as War Criminals before Military Commissions  
Author: Elsea, Jennifer K.
Volume:
Language: English
Subject: Government publications, Legislation., Government Printing Office (U.S.)
Collections: Government Library Collection
Historic
Publication Date:
Publisher: Government Printing Office

Citation

APA MLA Chicago

Elsea, J. K. (n.d.). Terrorism and the Law of War: Trying Terrorists as War Criminals before Military Commissions. Retrieved from http://hawaiilibrary.net/


Excerpt
Introduction: On November 13, 2001, President Bush signed a Military Order pertaining to the detention, treatment, and trial of certain non-citizens as part of the war against terrorism. The order makes clear that the President views the crisis that began on the morning of September 11 as an attack “on a scale that has created a state of armed conflict that requires the use of the United States Armed Forces.” The order finds that the effective conduct of military operations and prevention of military attacks make it necessary to detain certain non-citizens and if necessary, to try them “for violations of the laws of war and other applicable laws by military tribunals.”

Table of Contents
Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Ancillary Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Sources and Principles of the Law of War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Military Necessity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Humanity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Chivalry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Responsibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Protection of Civilians and Prisoners of War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 The Law of War Applied . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Is There an “Armed Conflict”? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Are the September Attacks “Acts of War”? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Are Terrorists “Belligerents”? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Legal Bases for Establishing Military Commission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 The Constitution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Precedent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 War with Mexico . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Civil War Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Other Conflicts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 World War I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 World War II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Other Rulings on Military Courts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Analysis of President’s Military Order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Wartime Basis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Jurisdiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Offenses Triable by Military Commission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Authority to Detain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Jurisdiction of Other Courts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Review and Appeal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Rules Applicable to the Military Commission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Statutes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Procedural Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Due Process – Search for an International Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

 

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