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Report for Congress Received through the Crs Web the Export Administration Act: Evolution, Provisions, And Debate April 1, 2003

By Fergusson, Ian F.

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Book Id: WPLBN0000144132
Format Type: PDF eBook
File Size: 0.2 MB
Reproduction Date: 2008
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Title: Report for Congress Received through the Crs Web the Export Administration Act: Evolution, Provisions, And Debate April 1, 2003  
Author: Fergusson, Ian F.
Volume:
Language: English
Subject: Government publications, Legislation., Government Printing Office (U.S.)
Collections: Government Library Collection
Historic
Publication Date:
Publisher: Government Printing Office

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Fergusson, I. F. (n.d.). Report for Congress Received through the Crs Web the Export Administration Act: Evolution, Provisions, And Debate April 1, 2003. Retrieved from http://hawaiilibrary.net/


Excerpt
Summary: The 108th Congress may consider legislation to rewrite or to reauthorize the Export Administration Act (EAA). H.R. 55 was introduced on January 7, 2003. Through the EAA, Congress delegates to the executive branch its express constitutional authority to regulate foreign commerce. The EAA provides the statutory authority for export controls on sensitive dual-use goods and technologies: items that have both civilian and military applications, including those items that can contribute to the proliferation of nuclear, biological, and chemical weaponry. The EAA, which originally expired in 1989, periodically has been reauthorized for short periods of time, with the last incremental extension expiring in August 2001. At other times and currently, the export licensing system created under the authority of EAA has been continued by the invocation of the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (IEEPA). EAA confers upon the President the power to control exports for national security, foreign policy or short supply purposes. It also authorizes the President to establish export licensing mechanisms for items detailed on the Commerce Control List (CCL), and it provides some guidance and places certain limits on that authority. The CCL currently provides detailed specifications for about 2,400 dual-use items including equipment, materials, software, and technology (including data and know-how) likely requiring some type of export license from the Commerce Department’s Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS). BIS administers the Export Administration Regulations (EAR), which, in addition to the CCL, describe licensing policy and procedures such as commodity classification, license applications, and interagency dispute resolution procedures. In the absence of a currently authorized EAA, the EAR is maintained under IEEPA authority.

Table of Contents
Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 The Evolution of the Export Administration Act . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Analysis of Provisions in EAA Legislation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Types of Control Authority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 National Security Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Foreign Policy Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Short Supply Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 The Control List and Licensing Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Commerce Control List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 License Review Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Dispute Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Issues Concerning IEEPA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Technology and Commodities of Concern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 High Performance Computers (HPCs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Encryption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Stealth Technology and Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Satellites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Machine Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Aerospace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Deemed Exports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Competing Perspectives In the Export Control Debate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Foreign Availability and the Controllability of Technology . . . . . . . . 15 The Effectiveness of Multilateral Regimes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 The Licensing Process and Organization of the Export Control System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Impact on the U.S. Economy and U.S. Business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

 

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