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World Health Organization Publication : Year 2005 ; Issue 9241562889: Sexually Transmitted Infections among Adolescents

By Joy Phumaphi

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Book Id: WPLBN0000192959
Format Type: PDF eBook
File Size: 1.4 MB
Reproduction Date: 2005
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Title: World Health Organization Publication : Year 2005 ; Issue 9241562889: Sexually Transmitted Infections among Adolescents  
Author: Joy Phumaphi
Language: English
Subject: Health., Public health, Wellness programs
Collections: Medical Library Collection, World Health Collection
Publication Date:
Publisher: World Health Organization


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Phumaphi, J. (n.d.). World Health Organization Publication : Year 2005 ; Issue 9241562889. Retrieved from

Medical Reference Publication

Today it is widely acknowledged among public health decision-makers and experts, that adolescents not only have sexual and reproductive needs but likewise rights, including the right to a satisfying and safe sexuality. Adolescents, often termed the generation of hope, play a vital role for the future health status of any country. Their behaviours, attitudes and beliefs are also shaping the societies of the future. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in general, and among adolescents in particular, are of paramount concern to all people who work on improving the health status of populations. Worldwide the highest reported rates of STIs are found among people between 15 and 24 years; up to 60% of the new infections and half of all people living with HIV globally are in this age group. STIs are still widely connected with stigmatization, embarrassment and denial among health workers and patients alike. Sexuality, and associated health risks, are still a major taboo in many societies. This is especially true for young people. While their rights and needs may be acknowledged in theory, in practice they are still confronted with many barriers when it comes to obtaining the practical support they need to avoid problems. An expression of their “unmet needs” is the worldwide scarcity of services available for young people especially services related to the treatment of STIs. Gender is a critical issue in STI prevention and care. Gender-based inequalities put girls and young women at increased risk of acquiring STIs. Gender-based inequalities also affect their access to prevention and care services. In addressing these inequalities, it is important to consider the different needs and constraints of young women and young men, and to design interventions accordingly. The Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) assists partners from government and civil society to improve prevention activities for young people. However, it was found that this support had rarely included the promotion and establishment of adolescent-friendly services for the diagnosis and treatment of STIs. Therefore, WHO's Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development and the Department of Reproductive Health and Research and GTZ's Division of Health, Education and Social Protection jointly reviewed experiences of STI services for adolescents worldwide with financial support from the German Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development. This review investigated a wide range of experiences with concepts of adolescent-friendly services, as well as barriers to effective STI care for adolescents and aspects related to the acceptance of those services by the adolescents themselves. The review confirms the enormous unmet need and underlines the public health urgency for adolescent-friendly STI services and STI prevention as an integral part of reproductive health and HIV programmes

Table of Contents
Table of Contents Acknowledgements vii Foreword ix Executive summary xi Abbreviated and full names of contributing organizations xiii Chapter 1. Introduction 1 1.1 Adolescents' need for STI services 1 1.2 Contents of this review 2 Chapter 2. Methods of data collection, data sources and responses 3 2.1 Methods and sources 3 2.2 Published literature 3 2.3 Individual informants 4 Chapter 3. Adolescence, sexuality and STIs 5 3.1 Adolescence - a dynamic concept 5 Legal markers 5 Socioeconomic and rural-urban differences 6 The diminishing role of the family 6 3.2 The sociocultural context of adolescent sexuality 7 Age at first sex and premarital sexual activity 7 Frequency of sex, number of partners and sexual practices 8 Gender differences 9 Selling and exchanging sex for money and favours 10 Same-sex partners among young men 11 Sexual coercion and violence 11 Condom use 12 3.3 STIs among adolescents: epidemiological evidence 13 Chlamydia infections and gonorrhoea among adolescent girls 13 Chlamydia and gonorrhoea among adolescent boys 14 Other sexually transmitted infections 15 Chapter 4. Barriers to effective STI care for adolescents 17 4.1 Asymptomatic infections and the lack of simple diagnostic methods 17 4.2 Adolescents' knowledge, attitudes and communication skills related to STIs 18 Inadequate sources of information 18 Lack of knowledge of STIs 19 Table of contents


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