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Report for Congress Received through the Crs Web High Performance Computers and Export Control Policy: Issues for Congress Updated February 10, 2003

By Mcloughlin, Glenn J.

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Book Id: WPLBN0000194502
Format Type: PDF eBook
File Size: 0.2 MB
Reproduction Date: 2008
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Title: Report for Congress Received through the Crs Web High Performance Computers and Export Control Policy: Issues for Congress Updated February 10, 2003  
Author: Mcloughlin, Glenn J.
Volume:
Language: English
Subject: Government publications, Legislation., Government Printing Office (U.S.)
Collections: Government Library Collection
Historic
Publication Date:
Publisher: Government Printing Office

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Mcloughlin, G. J. (n.d.). Report for Congress Received through the Crs Web High Performance Computers and Export Control Policy: Issues for Congress Updated February 10, 2003. Retrieved from http://hawaiilibrary.net/


Excerpt
Summary: Congress has a strong interest in export control policy and technologies that may have both commercial and military applications outside of the United States. Through its constitutionally delegated authority to regulate foreign commerce, it has the authority to control exports for national security or foreign policy purposes. The 107th Congress is closely examining issues of national export control policy, including reauthorization of the Export Administration Act (EAA), and control policies concerning key technologies. Among these technologies are High Performance Computers–HPCs. HPCs are either single computing machines (usually called supercomputers) or a cluster of easily available, high-end workstations or personal computers. Congressional interest in HPCs has primarily, but not exclusively, been focused on the dual-use applications of HPCs. That is, commercial HPCs that may also be used to simulate nuclear weapon tests, chemical and biological weapons production, and for military command, control, and communications. The 108th Congress likely will again consider the the reauthorization of the EAA. Both chambers considered EAA legislation in the 107th Congress. The Senate passed S. 149 on September 6, 2001. H.R. 2581 was ordered reported by the House International Relations Committee on August 1, 2001, and was further amended by the House Armed Services Committee on March 6, 2002. Freestanding legislation was also introduced in both houses of Congress (S. 591, H.R. 1553) to repeal National Defense Authorization Act of 1998 (NDAA98) licensing, notification, and post-shipment verification requirements.

Table of Contents
Contents Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Congressional Interest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Proliferation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 U.S. Industry Concerns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Congressional Oversight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Issues for Policymakers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Military Uses of HPCs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 U.S. Government and Industry Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 HPCs and Export Policy Revisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Multilateral Regimes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 The Coordinating Committee (CoCom) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 U.S. Japan Supercomputer Agreement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Wassenaar Arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 U.S. Domestic Policy and Regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 MTOPS and Country Tiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 The Cox Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 The National Defense Authorization Act of 1998 (NDAA98) . . . . . . 12 Further Decontrols: 1999-2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 MTOPS: Technology and Policy Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 MTOPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Eliminating MTOPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Alternatives to MTOPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 National Security, Economic Security and Federal R&D: Issues and Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 National Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Economic Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Federal R&D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Legislation in the 107th Congress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Mass Market and Foreign Availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Repeal of NDAA98 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Post-Shipment Verification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Deemed Exports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 List of Tables Table 1. Performance Levels of Computers That Support Selected Applications of Military Significance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Table 2. 1996 HPC Export Control Tiers and Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

 

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