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The Homogeneous Nucleation Limits of Liquids

By Avedisian, C. T.

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Book Id: WPLBN0000662127
Format Type: PDF eBook
File Size: 3.33 MB.
Reproduction Date: 2005
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Title: The Homogeneous Nucleation Limits of Liquids  
Author: Avedisian, C. T.
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Language: English
Subject: Technology., Reference materials, Technology and literature
Collections: Techonology eBook Collection
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Avedisian, C. (n.d.). The Homogeneous Nucleation Limits of Liquids. Retrieved from http://hawaiilibrary.net/


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Technical Reference Publication

Excerpt
Excerpt: Significance of the Limit of Superheat. The homogeneous nucleation limit, or limit of superheat, of a liquid represents the deepest possible penetration of a liquid in the domain of metastable states. At constant pressure and composition, it is the highest temperature below the critical point a liquid can sustain without undergoing a phase transition; at constant temperature, it is the lowest pressure. The practical significance of this limit resides in the consequences of the phase transition that eventually occurs when this limit is reached. The energy released when a liquid at its limit of superheat vaporizes could create a so-called vapor explosion if a significant fraction of this energy appears in the form of a thermal detonation wave, or if bubbles grow at a rate that exceeds the ability of the surrounding liquid to acoustically respond. Although this energy is orders of magnitude less than that typical of chemical explosions, the destructive capability of vapor explosions produced when a hot?

Table of Contents
Contents Significance of the Limit of Supcrl~a.l. ............... The Limiting Liquid Superheat as a Physical Property ............................................................... Experimental Methods. ........................................ 3.1. Methods Involving Liquids incontact with. .. Solids ........................................................... a. Introduction ............................................ b. Pulse Heating Method ............................ c. Capillary Tube Methods .......................... d. Bulb Method ........................................... 3.2. Methods Involving Liquids in Contact with Immiscible Liquids ...................................... a. Introduction ............................................. b. Isobaric Droplet Heating ........................ c. Isothermal Decompression Methods ...... 4. Nucleation Rates Commensurate with Experi- mental Conditions ................................................ 4.1. Introduction ................................................ 4.2. Floating Droplet and Capillary Tube Methods ............................................................... 4.3. Pulse Heating Method ................................ 4.4. Summary ..................................................... 5. Criteria for Inclusion of Data in Tables 4-6 ........ 5.1. Criteria .......................... ; ............................. 5.2. Exceptions and Discrepancies ..................... 6. Data Extraction from Original Sources ............... 7. Nomenclature ........................... .;. ........................ 8. Acknowledgments ................................................ 9. References ............................................................ @ 1985 by the U. S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the United States. This copyright is assigned to the American Institute of Physics and the American Chemical Society. Reprints available from ACS; see Reprints List at back of issue. List of Tables 1. Thermodynamic limit of superheat of several pure liquids at atmospheric pressure calculated using the Peng-Robinson equation of state ........ 697 2. Limit of superheat and nucleation rateof-water at atmospheric pressure .......................................... 698 3. Approximate nucleation rates commensurate with various experimental methods .................... 706 4. Limits of superheat of pure liquids ..................... 710 5. Limits of superheat of binary mixtures ............... 722 6. Limits of superheat of ternary mixtures .............. 728 List of Figures 1. Pressure-temperature phase diagram for a pure snhstanc~(. sdidAiq~iida nd solid/gas eqnilihrium boundaries omitted). Path a-c corresponds to isobaric heating. Path b-c corresponds to iso- thermal decompression ...................................... 696 2. Schematic variation of nucleation rate with temperature at a given ambient pressure. J,, defines the minimum nucleation rate below which homogeneous nucleation is unlikely. The superheats AT, and AT, correspond to rates J, and J,, respectively. The superheat at J- is shown corresponding to the thermodynamic limit ............. 698 3. Schematic illustration of states corresponding to the tensile strength (i.e., limiting negative pressure). When T> T' ambient pressure is compressive. When T< T ' ambient pressure is extensive . 701 4. Variation of limit of superheat of argon with pressure .............................................................. 708 5. Variation of limit of superheat of water with pressure ............................................................. 708 6. Variation of limit of superheat of ethanol with pressure .............................................................. 708

 

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