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Plos Computational Biology : Evolutionary Modeling of Rate Shifts Reveals Specificity Determinants in Hiv-1 Subtypes, Volume 4

By Boer, Rob, J. De

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Book Id: WPLBN0003925642
Format Type: PDF eBook :
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Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Plos Computational Biology : Evolutionary Modeling of Rate Shifts Reveals Specificity Determinants in Hiv-1 Subtypes, Volume 4  
Author: Boer, Rob, J. De
Volume: Volume 4
Language: English
Subject: Journals, Science, Computational Biology
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection (Contemporary), PLoS Computational Biology
Historic
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Publisher: Plos

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De Boer, R. J. (n.d.). Plos Computational Biology : Evolutionary Modeling of Rate Shifts Reveals Specificity Determinants in Hiv-1 Subtypes, Volume 4. Retrieved from http://hawaiilibrary.net/


Description
Description : A hallmark of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) is its rapid rate of evolution within and among its various subtypes. Two complementary hypotheses are suggested to explain the sequence variability among HIV-1 subtypes. The first suggests that the functional constraints at each site remain the same across all subtypes, and the differences among subtypes are a direct reflection of random substitutions, which have occurred during the time elapsed since their divergence. The alternative hypothesis suggests that the functional constraints themselves have evolved, and thus sequence differences among subtypes in some sites reflect shifts in function. To determine the contribution of each of these two alternatives to HIV-1 subtype evolution, we have developed a novel Bayesian method for testing and detecting sitespecific rate shifts. The RAte Shift EstimatoR (RASER) method determines whether or not site-specific functional shifts characterize the evolution of a protein and, if so, points to the specific sites and lineages in which these shifts have most likely occurred. Applying RASER to a dataset composed of large samples of HIV-1 sequences from different group M subtypes, we reveal rampant evolutionary shifts throughout the HIV-1 proteome. Most of these rate shifts have occurred during the divergence of the major subtypes, establishing that subtype divergence occurred together with functional diversification. We report further evidence for the emergence of a new sub-subtype, characterized by abundant rate-shifting sites. When focusing on the rate-shifting sites detected, we find that many are associated with known function relating to viral life cycle and drug resistance. Finally, we discuss mechanisms of covariation of rate-shifting sites.

 

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