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Plos Genetics : Identification of Widespread Ultra-edited Human Rnas, Volume 7

By Maizels, Nancy

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Book Id: WPLBN0003931678
Format Type: PDF eBook :
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Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Plos Genetics : Identification of Widespread Ultra-edited Human Rnas, Volume 7  
Author: Maizels, Nancy
Volume: Volume 7
Language: English
Subject: Journals, Science, Genetics
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection, PLoS Genetics
Publication Date:
Publisher: Plos


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Maizels, N. (n.d.). Plos Genetics : Identification of Widespread Ultra-edited Human Rnas, Volume 7. Retrieved from

Description : Adenosine-to-inosine modification of RNA molecules (A-to-I RNA editing) is an important mechanism that increases transciptome diversity. It occurs when a genomically encoded adenosine (A) is converted to an inosine (I) by ADAR proteins. Sequencing reactions read inosine as guanosine (G): therefore, current methods to detect A-to-I editing sites align RNA sequences to their corresponding DNA regions and identify A-to-G mismatches. However, such methods perform poorly on RNAs that underwent extensive editing (‘‘ultra’’-editing), as the large number of mismatches obscures the genomic origin of these RNAs. Therefore, only a few anecdotal ultra-edited RNAs have been discovered so far. Here we introduce and apply a novel computational method to identify ultra-edited RNAs. We detected 760 ESTs containing 15,646 editing sites (more than 20 sites per EST, on average), of which 13,668 are novel. Ultra-edited RNAs exhibit the known sequence motif of ADARs and tend to localize in sense strand Alu elements. Compared to sites of mild editing, ultra-editing occurs primarily in Alu-rich regions, where potential base pairing with neighboring, inverted Alus creates particularly long double-stranded RNA structures. Ultra-editing sites are underrepresented in old Alu subfamilies, tend to be non-conserved, and avoid exons, suggesting that ultra-editing is usually deleterious. A possible biological function of ultra-editing could be mediated by noncanonical splicing and cleavage of the RNA near the editing sites.


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