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Mesospheric Dust and Its Secondary Effects as Observed by the Esprit Payload : Volume 27, Issue 3 (05/03/2009)

By Havnes, O.

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Book Id: WPLBN0003973335
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 10
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Mesospheric Dust and Its Secondary Effects as Observed by the Esprit Payload : Volume 27, Issue 3 (05/03/2009)  
Author: Havnes, O.
Volume: Vol. 27, Issue 3
Language: English
Subject: Science, Annales, Geophysicae
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection (Contemporary), Copernicus GmbH
Historic
Publication Date:
2009
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications

Citation

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Surdal, L. H., Philbrick, C. R., & Havnes, O. (2009). Mesospheric Dust and Its Secondary Effects as Observed by the Esprit Payload : Volume 27, Issue 3 (05/03/2009). Retrieved from http://hawaiilibrary.net/


Description
Description: Department of Physics and Technology, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway. The dust detector on the ESPRIT rocket detected two extended dust/aerosol layers during the launch on 1 July 2006. The lower layer at height ~81.5–83 km coincided with a strong NLC and PMSE layer. The maximum dust charge density was ~−3.5×109 e m−3 and the dust layer was characterized by a few strong dust layers where the dust charge density at the upper edges changed by factors 2–3 over a distance of ≲10 m, while the same change at their lower edges were much more gradual. The upper edge of this layer is also sharp, with a change in the probe current from zero to IDC=−10−11 A over ~10 m, while the same change at the low edge occurs over ~500 m. The second dust layer at ~85–92 km was in the height range of a comparatively weak PMSE layer and the maximum dust charge density was ~−108 e m−3. This demonstrates that PMSE can be formed even if the ratio of the dust charge density to the electron density P=NdZd /n_e≲0.01.

In spite of the dust detector being constructed to reduce possible secondary charging effects from dust impacts, it was found that they were clearly present during the passage through both layers. The measured secondary charging effects confirm recent results that dust in the NLC and PMSE layers can be very effective in producing secondary charges with up to ~50 to 100 electron charges being rubbed off by one impacting large dust particle, if the impact angle is Θi≳20–35°. This again lends support to the suggested model for NLC and PMSE dust particles (Havnes and Næsheim, 2007) as a loosely bound water-ice clump interspersed with a considerable number of sub-nanometer-sized meteoric smoke particles, possibly also contaminated with meteoric atomic species.


Summary
Mesospheric dust and its secondary effects as observed by the ESPRIT payload

Excerpt
Havnes, O. and Kassa, M.: On the sizes and observable effects of dust particles i PMWE, J. Geophys. Res., accepted, doi:2008JD011276, 2009. \bibitem[] Havnes, O. and Næsheim, L. I.: On the secondary charging effects and structure of mesospheric dust particles impacting on rocket probes, Ann. Geophys., 25, 623–637, 2007. \bibitem[] Havnes, O., de Angelis, U., Bingham, R., Goertz, C. K., Morfill, G. E., and Tsytovich, V.: On the role of dust in the summer mesopause, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 52, 637–643, 1990. \bibitem[] Havnes, O., Trøim, J., Blix, T., Mortensen, W., Næsheim, L. I., Thrane, E., and Tønnesen, T.: First detection of charged dust particles in the Earth's mesosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 10839–10847, 1996. \bibitem[] Havnes, O., Brattli, A., Aslaksen, T., Singer, W., Latteck, R., Blix, T., Thrane, E., and Trøim, J.: First common volume observations of layered plasma structures and polar mesospheric summer echoes by rocket and radar, Geophys. Res.\ Lett., 28, 1419–1422, 2001a. \bibitem[] Havnes, O., Aslaksen, T., and Brattli, A.: Charged dust in the Earth's middle atmosphere, Phys. Scripta, T89, 133–137, 2001b. \bibitem[] Hedin, J., Gumbel, J., and Rapp, M.: On the efficiency of rocket-borne particle detection in the mesosphere, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 3701–3711, 2007. \bibitem[] Hedin, J., Gumbel, J., Rapp, M., and Waldemarsson, T.: On the efficiency of rocket-borne particle detection in the mesosphere, 36th COSPAR Scientific Assembly, p.\ 3098, Beijing, China, 16–23 July 2006. \bibitem[] Horányi, M., Gumbel, J., Witt, G., and Robertson, S.: Simulation of rocket-borne particle measurements in the mesosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 1537–1540, 1999. \bibitem[] Hunten, D. M., Turco, R. P., and Toon, O. B.: Smoke and dust particles of meteoric origin in the mesosphere and stratosphere, J. Atmos. Sci., 37, 1342–1357, 1980.; Kopp, E., Bertin, F., Björn,L.G., Dickinson, P. H. G., Philbrick, C. R., and Witt, G.: The CAMP campaign 1982, Proc. 7th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, Loen, Norway, 5–11 May 1985, (ESA SP-229), 117–123, 1985. \bibitem[] Latteck, R., Singer, W., and Bardey, H.: The ALWIN MST Radar – Technical Design and Performance, Proceedings 14th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, Potsdam, Germany, 31 May–3 June 1999, ESA SP–437, pp. 179–184, 1999. \bibitem[] Lübken, F. J. and Hoffner, J.: Experimental evidence for ice particle interaction with metal atoms at the high latitude summer mesopause region, Geophys.\ Res. Lett., 31, L08103, doi:10.1029/2004GL019586, 2004. \bibitem[] Megner, L., Rapp, M., and Gumbel, J.: Distribution of meteoric smoke – sensitivity to microphysical properties and atmospheric conditions, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 4415–4426, 2006. \bibitem[] Mitchell, J. D., Croskey, C. L., and Goldberg, R. A., Evidence for charged aerosols and associated meter-scale structure in identified PMSE/NLC regions, Geophys.\ Res. Lett., 28, 1423–1426, 2001. \bibitem[] Pedersen, A., Trøim, J., and Kane, J.: Rocket measurement showing removal of electrons above the mesopause in summer at high latitudes, Planet. Space Sci., 18, 945–947, 1969. \bibitem[] Philbrick, C. R., Bilén, S. G., Wheeler, T. F., and Thrane, E. V.: Educational advantages afforded by the ESPRIT project, Proc. 18th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, Visby, Sweden, 3–7 June 2007 (ESA SP–647), 257–262, 2007. \bibitem[] Plane, J. M. C.: Atmospheric chemistry of meteoric metals, Chem. Rev., 103, 4963–4984, 2003. \bibitem[] Plane, J. M. C., Murray, B. J., Chu, X. Z., and Gardner, C. S.: Removal of meteoric iron on polar mesospheric clouds, Science, 304, 426–428, 2004. \bibitem[] Rapp, M. and Lübken, F.-J.: Polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE): Review of observations and current understanding, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 4, 2601–2633, 2004. \bibitem[] Rapp, M., Lübken, F.-J., and Blix, T. A.: Small scale density variations of elec

 

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