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Analysis of Intra-country Virtual Water Trade Strategy to Alleviate Water Scarcity in Iran : Volume 14, Issue 8 (02/08/2010)

By Faramarzi, M.

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Book Id: WPLBN0003980368
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 17
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Analysis of Intra-country Virtual Water Trade Strategy to Alleviate Water Scarcity in Iran : Volume 14, Issue 8 (02/08/2010)  
Author: Faramarzi, M.
Volume: Vol. 14, Issue 8
Language: English
Subject: Science, Hydrology, Earth
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection (Contemporary), Copernicus GmbH
Historic
Publication Date:
2010
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications

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Faramarzi, M., Schulin, R., Yang, H., Binder, C. R., Mousavi, J., & Abbaspour, K. C. (2010). Analysis of Intra-country Virtual Water Trade Strategy to Alleviate Water Scarcity in Iran : Volume 14, Issue 8 (02/08/2010). Retrieved from http://hawaiilibrary.net/


Description
Description: Departement of Natural Resources, Isfahan University of Technology, 84156 Isfahan, Iran. Increasing water scarcity has posed a major constraint to sustain food production in many parts of the world. To study the situation at the regional level, we took Iran as an example and analyzed how an intra-country virtual water trade strategy (VWTS) may help improve cereal production as well as alleviate the water scarcity problem. This strategy calls, in part, for the adjustment of the structure of cropping pattern (ASCP) and interregional food trade where crop yield and crop water productivity as well as local economic and social conditions are taken into account. We constructed a systematic framework to assess ASCP at the provincial level under various driving forces and constraints. A mixed-integer, multi-objective, linear optimization model was developed and solved by linear programming. Data from 1990–2004 were used to account for yearly fluctuations of water availability and food production. Five scenarios were designed aimed at maximizing the national cereal production while meeting certain levels of wheat self-sufficiency under various water and land constraints in individual provinces. The results show that under the baseline scenario, which assumes a continuation of the existing water use and food policy at the national level, some ASCP scenarios could produce more wheat with less water. Based on different scenarios in ASCP, we calculated that 31% to 100% of the total wheat shortage in the deficit provinces could be supplied by the wheat surplus provinces. As a result, wheat deficit provinces would receive 3.5 billion m3 to 5.5 billion m3 of virtual water by importing wheat from surplus provinces.

Summary
Analysis of intra-country virtual water trade strategy to alleviate water scarcity in Iran

Excerpt
Abbaspour, K. C., Faramarzi, M., Ghasemi, S. S., and Yang, H.: Assessing the impact of climate change on water resources in Iran, Water Resour. Res., 45, W10434, doi:10.1029/2008WR007615, 2009.; Afkhami, M., Shariat, M., Zaafarzadeh, N., Ghadiri, H., and Nabizadeh, R.: Reginal water quality management for the Karun-Dez river basin, Iran, Water Environ. J., 21, 192–199, doi:10.1111/j.1747-6593.2007.00070, 2007.; Agha, S. R.: Use of goal programming and integer programming for water quality management – A case study of Gaza Strip, Eur. J. Oper. Res., 174, 1991–1998, doi:10.1016/j.ejor.2005.06.007, 2006.; Alcamo, J., Flörke, M., and Märker, M.: Future long-term changes in global water resources driven by socio-economic and climatic changes, Hydrolog. Sci. J., 52(2), 247–275, doi:10.1623/hysj.52.2.247, 2007.; Allan, J. A.: Virtual Water: A Long Term Solution for Water Short Middle Eastern Economies?', Occasional Paper, SOAS Water Issues Group, King's College, UK, 1997.; Al-Zahrani, M. A. and Ahmad, A. M.: Stochastic goal programming model for optimal blending desalinated water with groundwater, Water Resour. Manag., 18, 339–352, doi:10.1023/B:WARM.0000048487.05662.88, 2004.; Akhavan, S., Mousavi, S. F., Abedi-Koupai, J., and Abbaspour, K. C.: Conditioning DRASTIC model to simulate nitrate pollution, Case study: Hamadan-Bahar Plain, Environ. Geol., in review, 2010.; Ardakanian, R.: Overview of water management in Iran, in Water Conservation, Reuse, and Recycling: Proceeding of an Iranian-American workshop, The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, 18–33, 2005.; Chapagain, A. K., Hoekstra, A. Y., and Savenije, H. H. G.: Water saving through international trade of agricultural products, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 10, 455–468, doi:10.5194/hess-10-455-2006, 2006.; Dabrowski, J. M., Murray, K., Ashton, P. J., and Leaner, J. J.: Agricultural impacts on water quality and implications for virtual water trading decisions, Ecol. Econ., 68, 1074–1082, doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2008.07.016, 2009.; Liu, J. and Savenije, H. H. G.: Time to break the silence around virtual-water imports, Nature, 453, 587, 2008.; Liu, J., Zehnder, A. J. B., and Yang, H.: Historical trends in China's virtual water trade, Water Int., 32(1), 78–90, 2007.; Dehghani, S. H., Alizadeh, A., and Keshavarz, A.: Implementation of Water Use Pattern in Terms of Volumetric Supply of Water to Farmers, Iranian Agricultural Research Institute (IAERI) Press, Tehran, Iran , 1999 (in Persian).; Faramarzi, M., Abbaspour, K. C., Schulin, R., and Yang, H.: Modelling blue and green water resources availability in Iran, Hydrol. Process., 23(3), 486–501, doi:10.1002/hyp.7160, 2009.; Faramarzi, M., Yang, H., Schulin, R., and Abbaspour, K. C.: Modeling Wheat Yield and Crop Water Productivity in Iran: Implications of Agricultural Water Management for Wheat Production, Agr. Water Manage., accepted, doi: 10.1016/j.agwat.2010.07.002, 2010.; Farshi, A. A., Shariati, M. R., JaroLlahi, R., Ghaemi, M. R., Shahabifar, M., and Tavallaei, M. M.: An Estimate of Water Requirement of Main Field Crops and Orchards in Iran, 900 pp., Vol. 1, Ministry of Agriculture, Agricultural and Natural Resource Organization, and Water and Soil Research Institute Press, Karaj, Iran, 1997.; Figueria, J. and Roy, B.: Determining the weights of criteria in the ELECTRE type methods with a revised Simo's procedure, Eur. J. Oper. Res., 139, 317–326, doi:10.1016/S0377-2217(01)00370-8, 2002.; Filizadeh, Y., Rezazadeh, A., and Younessi, Z.: Effects of crop rotation and tillage depth on weed competition and yield of rice in the paddy fields of Northern Iran, J. Agric. Sci. Technol., 9, 99–105, 2007.; Foued, B. A. and Sameh, M.: Application of goal programming in a multi-objective reservoir operation model in Tunisia, Eur. J. Oper. Res., 133, 352–361, doi:10.1016/S0377-2217(00)00303-9, 2001.; Ines, A. V. M., Honda, K., Das Gupta, A., Droogers, P., and Clemente, R. S.: Combining remote sensing-simulation modeling and genetic algorit

 

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