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Landuse Effects on Runoff Generating Processes in Tussock Grassland Indicated by Mean Transit Time Estimation Using Tritium : Volume 7, Issue 1 (10/02/2010)

By Stewart, M. K.

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Book Id: WPLBN0003991308
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 30
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Landuse Effects on Runoff Generating Processes in Tussock Grassland Indicated by Mean Transit Time Estimation Using Tritium : Volume 7, Issue 1 (10/02/2010)  
Author: Stewart, M. K.
Volume: Vol. 7, Issue 1
Language: English
Subject: Science, Hydrology, Earth
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection, Copernicus GmbH
Historic
Publication Date:
2010
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications

Citation

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Fahey, B. D., & Stewart, M. K. (2010). Landuse Effects on Runoff Generating Processes in Tussock Grassland Indicated by Mean Transit Time Estimation Using Tritium : Volume 7, Issue 1 (10/02/2010). Retrieved from http://hawaiilibrary.net/


Description
Description: Aquifer Dynamics & GNS Science, P.O. Box 30 368, Lower Hutt 5040, New Zealand. The east Otago uplands of New Zealand's South Island have long been studied because of the environmental consequences of converting native tussock grasslands to other land covers, notably forestry and pasture for stock grazing. Early studies showed that afforestation substantially reduced annual water yield, stream peak flows, and 7-day low flows, mainly as a consequence of increased interception. Tritium measurements have indicated that surprisingly old water is present in catchments GH1 and GH2, and the small headwater wetland and catchment (GH5). The old water contributes strongly to baseflow (and therefore also to quickflow). The data have been simulated assuming the presence of two types of water in the baseflow, young water from shallow aquifers connecting hillside regolith with the stream, and old water from deep bedrock aquifers, respectively. The mean transit time of the young water is of the order of months, while that of the old water is 25–26 years as revealed by the presence of tritium originating from the bomb-peak in NZ rainfall in late 1960s and early 1970s. Such a long transit time indicates slow release from groundwater reservoirs within the bedrock, which constitute by far the larger of the water stores. Comparison of the results from catchments GH1 (tussock) and GH2 (pine forest) suggests that about equal quantities of water (85 mm annually) are contributed from the deep aquifers in the two catchments, although runoff from the shallow aquifers has been strongly reduced by afforestation in GH2.

Summary
Landuse effects on runoff generating processes in tussock grassland indicated by mean transit time estimation using tritium

Excerpt
Bonell, M., Pearce, A. J., and Stewart, M. K.: The identification of runoff-production mechanisms using environmental isotopes in a tussock grassland catchment, Eastern Otago, New Zealand, Hydrol. Process. 4, 15–34, 1990.; Bowden, W. B., Fahey, B. D., Ekanayake, J., and Murray, D. L.: Hillslope and wetland hydrodynamics in a tussock grassland, Southland, New Zealand, Hydrol. Process., 15, 1707–1730, 2001.; Busenberg, W. and Plummer, L. N.: Use of chlorofluorocarbons (CCl3F and CCl2F2) as hydrologic tracer and age-dating tools: the alluvium and terrace system of Central Oklahoma, Water Resour. Res., 28, 2257–2283, 1992.; Campbell, D. I. and Murray, D. L.: Water balance of snow tussock grassland in New Zealand, J. Hydrol., 118, 229–245, 1990.; Morgenstern, U. and Taylor, C. B.: Ultra low-level tritium measurement using electrolytic enrichment and LSC, Isot. Environ. Health S., 45, 96–117, 2009.; Fahey, B. D., Bowden, W. B., Smith, J., and Murray, D. L.: Hillslope – wetland hydrological linkages in the headwaters of a tussock grassland catchment at Glendhu, South Island, New Zealand. In Hydrology, Water Resources, and Ecology of Headwaters, Proceedings of the HeadWater '98 Conference, Meran/Merano, Italy, IAHS Publication No. 248, 157–164, 1998.; Fahey, B. D. and Jackson, R. J.: Hydrological impacts of converting native forest and grasslands to pine plantations, South Island, New Zealand, Agric. Forest Meteorol., 84, 69–82, 1997.; Hewlett, J. D. and Hibbert, A. R.: Factors affecting the response of small watersheds to precipitation in humid areas, in: Forest Hydrology, edited by: Sopper, W. E. and Lull, H. W., Oxford, Pergamon, 275–290, 1967.; Hulston, J. R., Taylor, C. B., Lyon, G. L., Stewart, M. K., and Cox, M. A.: Environmental isotopes in New Zealand hydrology. Part 2. Standards, measurement techniques and reporting of measurements for oxygen{\-}18, deuterium and tritium in water, New Zeal. J. Sci., 24, 313–322, 1981.; Kirchner, J. W., Feng, X., and Neal, C.: Fractal stream chemistry and its implications for contaminant transport in catchments, Nature, 403, 524–527, 2000.; Maloszewski, P. and Zuber, A.: Determining the turnover time of groundwater systems with the aid of environmental tracers, 1. Models and their applicability, J. Hydrol., 57, 207–331, 1982.; McDonnell, J. J., McGuire, K., Aggarwal, P., Beven, K., Biondi, D., Destouni, G., Dunn, S., James, A., Kirchner, J., Kraft, P., Lyon, S., Maloszewski, P., Newman, B., Pfister, L., Rinaldo, A., Rodhe, A., Sayama, T., Seibert, J., Solomon, K., Soulsby, C., Stewart, M., Tetzlaff, D., Tobin, C., Troch, P., Weiler, M., Western, A., Wörman, A., and Wrede, S.: How old is the streamwater? Open questions in catchment transit time conceptualization, modelling and analysis, Hydrol. Process., in press, 2010.; McGlynn, B. L., McDonnell, J. J., Stewart, M. K., and Seibert, J.: On the relationships between catchment scale and streamwater mean residence time, Scientific Briefing, Hydrol. Process., 17, 175–181, 2003.; Miller, B. J.: Soil water regimes of the Glendhu Experimental Catchments, BSc Honours thesis, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand, 81 pp., 1994.; Pearce, A. J., Rowe, L. K., and O'Loughlin, C. L.: Hydrology of mid-altitude tussock grasslands, Upper Waipori catchment, Otago II. Water balance, flow duration, and storm runoff, J. Hydrol. (N. Z.), 23, 45–59, 1984.; Plummer, L. N. and Busenburg, E.: Chlorofluorocarbons, in: Environmental Tracers in Subsurface Hydrology, edited by: Cook, P. and Herczeg, A. L., Kluwer Academic Publishers, Chapter 15, 441–478, 1999.; Stewart, M. K., Cameron, S. C., Hong, T. Y.-S., Daughney, C. J., Tait, T., and Thomas, J. T.: Investigation of groundwater in the Upper Motueka River Catchment, GNS Science Report 2003/32, 47 pp., 2005.; Stewart, M. K., Cox, M. A., James, M. R., and Lyon, G. L.: Deuterium in New Zealand rivers and streams, I

 

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