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A Multi Basin Swat Model Analysis of Runoff and Sedimentation in the Blue Nile, Ethiopia : Volume 7, Issue 3 (25/06/2010)

By Easton, Z. M.

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Book Id: WPLBN0004012568
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 42
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: A Multi Basin Swat Model Analysis of Runoff and Sedimentation in the Blue Nile, Ethiopia : Volume 7, Issue 3 (25/06/2010)  
Author: Easton, Z. M.
Volume: Vol. 7, Issue 3
Language: English
Subject: Science, Hydrology, Earth
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection, Copernicus GmbH
Historic
Publication Date:
2010
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications

Citation

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Collick, A. S., Awulachew, S. B., Easton, Z. M., Fuka, D. R., Mccartney, M., Steenhuis, T. S.,...White, E. D. (2010). A Multi Basin Swat Model Analysis of Runoff and Sedimentation in the Blue Nile, Ethiopia : Volume 7, Issue 3 (25/06/2010). Retrieved from http://hawaiilibrary.net/


Description
Description: Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. A multi basin analysis of runoff and erosion in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia was conducted to elucidate sources of runoff and sediment. Erosion is arguably the most critical problem in the Blue Nile Basin, as it limits agricultural productivity in Ethiopia, degrades benthos in the Nile, and results in sedimentation of dams in downstream countries. A modified version of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was developed to predict runoff and sediment losses from the Ethiopian Blue Nile Basin. The model simulates saturation excess runoff from the landscape using a simple daily water balance coupled to a wetness index in ways that are consistent with observed runoff processes in the basin. The spatial distribution of landscape erosion is thus simulated more correctly. The model was parameterized in a nested design for flow at eight and sediment at two subbasin locations in the basin. Subbasins ranged in size from 4.8 to 174 000 km2, and interestingly, the partitioning of runoff and infiltrating flow could be predicted by topographic information. Model predictions showed reasonable accuracy (Nash Sutcliffe Efficiencies ranged from 0.53–0.92) with measured data across all sites except Kessie, where the water budget could not be closed; however, the timing of flow was well captured. Runoff losses increased with rainfall during the monsoonal season and were greatest from shallow soils. Analysis of model results indicate that upland landscape erosion dominated sediment delivery to the main stem of the Blue Nile in the early part of the growing season before the soil was wetted up and plant cover was established. Once plant cover was established in mid August landscape erosion was negligible and sediment export was dominated by channel processes and re-suspension of landscape sediment deposited early in the growing season. These results imply that targeting small areas of the landscape where runoff is produced can be the most effective at controlling erosion and protecting water resources. However, it is not clear what can be done to manage channel erosion, particularly in first order streams in the basin.

Summary
A multi basin SWAT model analysis of runoff and sedimentation in the Blue Nile, Ethiopia

Excerpt
Ahmed, A. A.: Sediment transport and watershed management Blue Nile system, Friend/Nile Project report, UNESCO, Khartoum Sudan, 2003.; Arnold, J. G., Srinivasan, R., Muttiah, R. S., and Williams, J. R.: Large area hydrologic modeling and assessment – Part I: model development, J. Am. Water Resour. As., 34(1), 73–89, 1998.; Ashagre, B. B.: Formulation of best management option for a watershed using swat (Anjeni watershed, Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia), M.P.S. thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 2009.; Awulachew, S. B., Yilma, A. D., Luelseged, M., Loiskandl, W., Ayana, M., and Alamirew, T.: Water resources and irrigation development in Ethiopia, International Water Management Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka, Working paper 123, 78 pp., 2007.; Beven, K. J. and Kirkby, M. J.: Towards a simple physically-based variable contributing model of catchment hydrology, Hydrol. Sci. Bull., 24(1), 43–69, 1979.; Collick, A. S., Easton, Z. M., Adgo, E., Awulachew, S. B., Gete, Z., and Steenhuis, T. S.: Application of a physically-based water balance model on four watersheds throughout the Upper Nile Basin in Ethiopia, Hydrol. Process., 23, 3718–372, doi:10.1002/hyp.7517, 2009.; Conway, D.: A water balance model of the upper Blue Nile in Ethiopia, Hydrolog. Sci. J., 42(2), 265–286, 1997.; Constable, M.: Resource of rural development in Ethiopia, Ethiopian High Lands Reclamation Study, Working Paper 17, FAO/Ministry of Agriculture, Addis Ababa, 1984.; Derib, S. D., Assefa, T., Berhanu, B., and Zeleke, G.: Impacts of micro-basin water harvesting structures in improving vegetative cover in degraded hillslope areas of North-East Ethiopia, Rangeland J., 31, 259–265, 2009.; Easton, Z. M., Fuka, D. R., Walter, M. T., Cowan, D. M., Schneiderman, E. M., and Steenhuis, T. S.: Re-conceptualizing the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model to predict runoff from variable source areas, J. Hydrol., 348(3–4), 279–291, 2008.; Easton, Z. M., Walter, M. T., Fuka, D. R., White, E. D., and Steenhuis, T. S.: A simple concept for calibrating runoff thresholds in quasi-distributed variable source area watershed models, Hydrol. Process., submitted, 2010.; FAO-AGL: WRB map of world soil resources, Land and Water Development Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, available at: http://www.fao.org/ag/agl/agll/wrb/soilres.stm (last access: June 2010), 2003.; Garzanti, G., Ando, S., Vezzoli, G., Megid, A. A. A., and El Kammar, A.: Petrology of Nile River sands (Ethiopia and Sudan) sediment budgets and erosion patterns, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 252, 327–341, 2006.; Grunwald, S. and Norton, L. D.: Calibration and validation of a non-point source pollution model, Agr. Water Manage., 45, 17–39, 2000.; Gizawchew, A.: Soil erosion assessment: approaches, magnitude of the problem and issues on policy and strategy development (Region 3), Paper presented at the Workshop on Regional Natural Resources Management Potentials and Constraints, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia, 11–13 January 1995, Bureau of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

 

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