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Hydrological Characterization of Watersheds in the Blue Nile Basin : Volume 7, Issue 4 (02/07/2010)

By Gebrehiwot, S. G.

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Book Id: WPLBN0004012575
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 23
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Hydrological Characterization of Watersheds in the Blue Nile Basin : Volume 7, Issue 4 (02/07/2010)  
Author: Gebrehiwot, S. G.
Volume: Vol. 7, Issue 4
Language: English
Subject: Science, Hydrology, Earth
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection, Copernicus GmbH
Historic
Publication Date:
2010
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications

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Ilstedt, U., Gärdenas, A. I., Bishop, K., & Gebrehiwot, S. G. (2010). Hydrological Characterization of Watersheds in the Blue Nile Basin : Volume 7, Issue 4 (02/07/2010). Retrieved from http://hawaiilibrary.net/


Description
Description: Departmen of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7050, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden. We made a hydrological characterization of 32 watersheds (31–4350 km2) in the Blue Nile Basin, using data from a study of water and land resources in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia published in 1964 by the US Bureau of Reclamation (USBR). The USBR document contains data on flow, climate, topography, geology, soil type, and land use for the period from 1959 to 1963. The aim of the study was to identify which combination of watershed variables best explain the variation in the hydrological regime, with special focus to low flow and, what kind of land use low flow might benefit from. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Square (PLS) were used to analyze the relationship between hydrologic variables (total flow, maximum flow, minimum flow, runoff coefficient, and low flow index) and 30 potential watershed variables. We found that three groups of watershed variables – climate and topography, geology and soil, and land use had almost equal influence on the variation in the hydrologic variables (R2 values ranging from 0.3 to 0.5). The individual variables which were selected based on statistical significance from all groups of explanatory variables were better in explaining the variation. Low flow was positively correlated most strongly to wetland, wood land, rainfall, luvisols, and alluvial soils. Low flow was negatively correlated to grazing land, bush land, tuffs/basalts, eutric-vertisols and riverine forest. We concluded that low flow benefits from the land use types that preserve soil quality and water storage, such as wetland, savannah and woodland, while it was lower in land use resulting in soil degradation. Therefore it provides support to the theory that some land use such as grassland, can promote higher low flow

Summary
Hydrological characterization of watersheds in the Blue Nile Basin

Excerpt
Abebe, S.: Identification and delineation of hydrological homogeneous regions – the case of Blue Nile River Basin, M.Sc. Thesis, ArbaMinch University, Ethiopia, 2007.; Adane, A. and G. Foerch.: Catchment characterization as predictors of baseflow index (BFI) in Wabi Shebele River Basin, East Africa, Conference on International Agricultural Research for Development, University of Bonn, Germany, 11–13 Oct 2006, 2006.; Black, P. E.: Watershed functions, J. Am. Water Resour. As., 33(1), 1–11, 1997.; Bruijnzeel, L. A.: Hydrological functions of tropical forests: not seeing the soil for the trees?, Agr. Ecosyst. Environ., 104, 185–228, 2004.; Demel, T. and Tesfaye, B.: State of Forests and Forestry Research in Ethiopia, Indicators and Tools for Restoration and Sustainable Management of Forests in East Africa, I-TOO working paper No. 1, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2002.; Gete, Z. and Hurni, H.: Implications of land use and land cover dynamics for mountain resource degradation in the Northwestern Ethiopian Highlands, Mt. Res. Dev., 21(2), 184–191, 2001.; Hause, M. and Lange, H.: Classification of runoff in headwater catchments: a physical problem?, Geography Compass, 2(1), 235–254, 2008.; Malmer, A., Murdiyarso, D., Bruijnzeel, L. A. (Sampurno), and Ilstedt, U.: Carbon sequestration in tropical forests and water: a critical look at the basis for commonly used generalizations, Glob. Change Biol., 16(2), 599–604, 2010.; McDonnell, J. J., Sivapalan, M., Vache, K., Dunn, S., Grant, G., Haggerty, R., Hinz, C., Hooper, R., Kirchner, J., Roderick, M. L., Selker, J., and Weiler, M.: Moving beyond heterogeneity and process complexity: a new vision for watershed hydrology, Water Resour. Res., 43, 1–6, 2007.; Ministry of Water Resources: Abbay River Basin Integrated Development Master Plan Project: Data Collection – Site Investigation Survey and Analysis, Phase 2. BECOM in collaboration with BRGM and ISL Consulting Engineers, Ministry of Water Resources, Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 1998.; SAS Institute Inc.: JMP® 7.0.1, SAS Campus Drive, Cary, North Carolina, 2007.; Sivapalan, M.: Pattern, process and function: elements of a unified theory of hydrology at the catchment scale, in: Encyclopedia of Hydrological Sciences, edited by: Anderson, M. G., John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2005.; Smakhtin, V. U.: Low flow hydrology: a review, J. Hydrol., 240, 147–186, 2001.; Uhlenbrook, S.: An empirical approach for delineating spatial units with the same dominating runoff generation processes, Phys. Chem. Earth, 28, 297–303, 2003.; Umetrics AB: SIMCA P+®, Version 12.0.1.0, April, 2009.; Upton, G. and Cook, I.: A Dictionary of Statistics, Oxford University Press, London, UK, 2006.; US Department of the Interior: Land and water resources of the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia, Appendixes III, IV, and V, Bureau of Reclamation, US, 1964.; Yadav, M., Wagener, T., and Gupta, H.: Regionalization of constraints on expected watershed response behavior for improved predictions in ungauged basins, Adv. Water Resour., 30, 1756–1774, 2007.; Zeleke, G.: Landscape dynamics and soil erosion process modelling in the Northwestern Ethiopian highlands, Ph.D. thesis, in: African Studies Series, vol. A16, Geographica Bernensia, Berne, Switzerland, 2000.

 

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